Cities: Hypatia, Tauron City, Tisza
Politics: Socialist Republic. In a cold war with Caprica.
Former colony of Virgon (and Leonis before that). Achieved its independence from Virgon in a costly revolution about 100 years ago, followed almost immediately by a civil war.
RL Inspiration: Eastern Europe / Russia
As one of the leading adopters of Cylons in their military (second only to Caprica), Tauron was hit hard by the uprising.
Tauron has had a turbulent past. It was a battleground between Virgon and Leonis for ages, changing hands countless times before finally overthrowing Virgon. Since then, it has gone through a civil war followed by an industrial revolution, which made it a major player in colonial politics even as it caused more unrest on the homefront. It still has a strong agricultural base. And yes, it has flowers.
Its moon, Minos, is home to a few domed science and mining outposts.
Tauron has been embroiled in a long cold war with Caprica. See Colonial Conflicts for details.
During and immediately following the civil war, many Taurons suffered horribly. Some besieged cities faced starvation. Others were just bombed to hell. In the wake of this, many Taurons sought asylum on other colonies, leading to a significant ex-pat culture.
Tauron tradition involves the application of tattoos to tell important aspects of your personal history. There is often a ceremony involved in their application, though some take this more seriously than others.
The Ha'la'tha is a powerful crime family on Tauron that also has tendrils throughout the colonies. Note: It is not as powerful or ubiquitous in this theme as it's portrayed in Caprica.