This page summarizes the various training programs that the soldiers in the Colonial Forces would receive.
There is no central military academy for the Colonial Forces (yet). Most of the colonies (except Scorpia and Sagittaron) have their own, and some have more than one. Academies take 4 years and oblige you to 4 years of service afterward. All academy graduates become officers.
You should have an interest-level background skill reflecting your course of study (major) at the academy. See this list for some ideas, but you are not limited to what's here.
Whether they attended the academy or enlisted, everyone attends a basic training course lasting 3 months. There are two versions - one for enlisted troops and one for officers.
You should have the following skills at Amateur(2) to reflect basic training: Alertness, Athletics, Composure, Firearms, Medicine and Melee.
After completing basic, troops go on to advanced training based on their specialty, usually another 3 months.
Advanced training will give you the primary skill(s) for your specialty at Fair(3). For example, a marine infantryman would get Firearms, a deckhand would get Technician, etc. Chargen will automatically suggest some suggested skills for your chosen position.
Certain professional specialties like pilots, linguists and medical personnel require additional specialized training. Nurses attend nursing school, medics take a paramedic course, pilots attend flight school, etc.
Military flight school requires a college or academy degree, takes 1 year, and obliges you to a year of service afterward (on top of the academy obligation, if they did both).
For other schools, use RL times as a guide or contact staff.
Flight school will give you both Piloting and Gunnery at Fair(3). All pilots start out on Raptors, but only Viper pilots fly Vipers.
Officer Candidate School (OCS) is a special program for enlisted troops who have shown enough leadership potential to be selected for an officer's commission. It is similar to the basic officer training program, but geared more toward existing soldiers. It lasts 3 months, after which the officer is commissioned at rank O1.